South Yandang Mountain is located in the west of Pingyang County, Zhejiang Province. It has the beauty of Hengshan Mountain, the majesty of Taishan Mountain and the momentum of Tu’er Ridge. It is a national AAAA scenic Area which is a mountain scenic spot and it is divided into Dongxi Hole Scenic Area, Shunxi Scenic Area, Mingwang Peak Scenic Area, Bihai Tiancheng Scenic Area and Red Rock Mountain Scenic Area.
The Scenic area rises because of the mountain and becomes a scene because of the water. The mountain is in life because of the water and the water turns with the mountain. The scenery of water and mountain set each other off becoming an interest. The Scenic area is famous for six natural sceneries such as the beautiful stream, secluded caves, Mountain peaks, scenic rocks, silver falls and stone willing. Among them, the most dense and spectacular scenic spots are in Dongxi Hole Scenic Area and the scenery is magnificent and magnificent. Within the half a square kilometer, there are the Confucianism Huiwen School of the Song Dynasty, the Xian’gu Hole Taoist Temple and Guanyin Cave Temple of the Tang Dynasty. The three religions are gathering here, the cultural relics are numerous and the folk customs are unique.
It is located in the east longitude of 120 ° 9 '5' 2 "~ 120 ° 20 ' and north latitude of 27 ° 31 '~ 27' 54" 43 " which is under the jurisdiction of Pingyang County,Zhejiang Province. It is 87 kilometers away from Wenzhou and 32 kilometers away from Pingyang city. The climate of the scenic area is pleasant and the annual average temperature is 17.9 ℃. According to geological exploration, the Southern Yandang Mountain is an ancient volcanic eruption zone. The mountain range of the scenic area is extended from the Donggong Mountain range in the boundary of Zhejiang and Fujian and the peaks are all at an altitude of more than 500 meters. The altitude of main peak Mingwang Peak is 289.5 meters and there are bog swamps on the top of the mountain. There are lots of geese inhabiting here in autumn and the North Yandang Mountain is relatively overlooking with it across the river so it is called South Yandang Mountain.
The South Yandang Mountain was originally divided into Dongxi Hole, Shun Stream, Chou Stream, Rock City and East Lantau five scenic areas and there are 67 peaks, 24 holes, 13 pools, 8 waterfalls and 9 stone. After a total revision, they were adjusted into Dongxi Hole Scenic Area, Shunxi Scenic Area, Mingwang Peak Scenic Area, Bihai Tiancheng Scenic Area and The flying dragon-Red Rock Mountain Scenic Area. Among them, Dongxi Hole Scenic Area and Shunxi Scenic Area are the landscape areas of first stage, the Mingwang Peak Scenic Area and the flying dragon-Red Rock Mountain Scenic Area are the secondary landscape areas and the Bihai Tiancheng Scenic Area is the tertiary landscape area. The total area is 169.27 square kilometers and the main area is 155.90 square kilometers, and the flying area is 13.37 square kilometers with 138 scenic spots. Among them, there are 85 natural scenic attractions and 53 cultural attractions. The overall natural landscape is characterized by " the beautiful stream, secluded caves, Mountain peaks, scenic rocks, silver falls and stone willings" six places of interest of South Yandang. The mountains are winding, the ravines are crisscrossed, the caves are densely distributed and the waterfalls run in the area. It is a rare domestic in the whole country that "Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism" three religions are gathering here. The couplet of Su Yuanlei and Zhao Puchu said that "the autumn colors are evenly divided between the north and the south Yandang Mountain and the high wind distantly connect the east and west forests.
People always said "North Yandang has good peak and South Yandang has good caves". The so-called good hole only refers to the Dongxi Hole Scenic Area. In fact, from the overall analysis of the whole scenic area, the basic reason why the mountain and water are so beautiful are that the streams of South Yandang are crisscrossed and the beaches and pools are distributed everywhere. Therefore, in terms of natural landscape, it can be summed up as " six places of interest in South Yandang"; As far as the cultural landscape is concerned, it is characterized by "three religions are gathering here". Generally speaking, "three religions and nine streams" is the main feature of the South Yandang Mountain Scenic Area.
The development of South Yandang began in the middle Tang Dynasty, flourished in Five Dynasties and two Song Dynasties. When the tang clan Li Gao was the chief of Wenzhou, he once wrote the poem "Visiting the South Yandang Mountain ". During the Five Dynasties, The monk Yuanqi settled down here. The king of Wu Yue Qian's said "because of the construction of the Puzhao Dojo, he used the Fu of whole Pingyang to praise it." In the Northern Song Dynasty, Huiwen Pavilion was built and it was called Huiwen School. Later, it was said that a neo-confucian scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty Zhu Xi came here to teach students and then it was full of humanities here . According to historical records, in terms of the cultural landscape only for ancient buildings,there are 13 ancient temples, 18 nunneries, 12 courtyards, 3 pavilions, 8 halls,2 caves,2 floors,1 temple and altar. The Places of historic interest of Confucianism, Buddhism and Xiao were everywhere and there are many stone inscriptions on the cliff here.
"The South Yandang Mountain" by a human being of Ming Cai Fang wrote that ”East Ou Yandang is a famous mountain in the world. There are two mountains and its south mountain become famous earlier. " The development history of South Yandang Mountain can be traced back to the earliest of the Southern Liu Song Dynasty period of more than 1580 years ago, when the ancestor of Chinese landscape poetry Xie Lingyun was the chief of Yongjia, he once went through Lingmen Mountain of Pingyang County(wrote a poem called “Visiting the Lingmen Mountain”) and visit the now Red Rock Scenic Area of South Yandang Mountain. The poet of Qing Dynasty Zhang Qiwu had a poem to remember: " I want to catch up the footsteps of Xiegong where to enjoy the journey. Gardenia flowers opens everywhere and banana forest is full of Red Rock Mountain."
In 771 (6th Year of the Tang Dynasty), Li Ting of Wenzhou and other people went into the mountains to cut firewood and lost their way, then they found a place of paradise. The poet Tang Dynasty Gukuang had a detailed description in the "fairy tale". According to the "about between Ou and Min" in this article pointed out by Jiang Zhun of Ming Dynasty that it should be the Southern Yandang Mountain. The related poetry works of Tang people Wu Yao, Li Gao, Lu Ying, Wu Zhang, Xue Zhengming and others are still known by people today.
The Five Dynasties period was the beginning of the official development of Southern Yandang Mountain. According to the record of “Fang Yu Sheng Lan”, the senior monk Yuanqi "heard of that there is Yandang on the top of Mingwang Peak of the Pingyang and the blessed clock can be heard when sky is sunny. Many monks came and went, they said happily that it is the most beautiful scenery in the world lived by Long Yan. Is it not the western book is called the Nuo and the dragon is the one who flies said by the western book? So he live here." In the meantime, the king of Wuyue gave him money to fund his construction of 18 nunneries such as Puzhao Dojo in the Southern Yandang Mountain. He also set out a county of Pingyang County to tax for his use. So Yuanqi became the father of the South Yandang Mountain.
In the Song Dynasty, Chen Jingzheng and Chen Jingbang brothers founded the Huiwen School and there was a vogue for learning. The Southern Yandang Mountain also gradually became a place of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism gathering. Zhang Jiucheng, Wang Shipeng, Zhu Xi and other celebrities have come to visit and left an inscription.
During the long time from Yuan Ming to the early Qing Dynasty, fighting, migration and other reasons caused the desolation of South Yandang Mountain. During the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty (1875-1908), the master of the Southern Yandang Chen Shaowen led the reconstruction of the Huiwen School and then finished the building of Di’e Shihui Floor. The temple buildings such as Xian’gu Cave and Guanyin Cave were also renovated. Shunxi Scenic Area has also been further developed. From then on, South Yandang Mountain began to revive.
In 1918, Zhou Chu summed up the achievements of his predecessors and published the " Chronicles of Southern Yandang Mountain " which gave a detailed introduction of the natural scenery and human palm of the Southern Yandang Mountain. The influence of the Southern Yandang Mountain has been extended.